What are AI and Machine Learning Models?
- Justin Riddiough
- June 16, 2023
This guide aims to provide an easy-to-understand introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and their models, and how they are utilized in various contexts.
Section 1: Introduction to AI
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a broad branch of computer science. The goal of AI is to create systems that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. These tasks include decision-making, object or speech recognition, translating languages, and more.
1.1 Types of AI
AI is mainly divided into two types:
- Narrow AI: These are systems designed to carry out a specific task, such as voice recognition. A good example is Apple’s Siri.
- General AI: These are systems that can perform any intellectual task humans can do. As of now, such AI exists only theoretically.
1.2 Generative AI
Generative AI is a type of AI that creates new data from existing ones. An example is GANs (Generative Adversarial Networks). GAN structure includes two models: a generator that generates new instances, and a discriminator that differentiates between the generated and real instances.
Section 2: Introduction to Machine Learning
Machine Learning is a subfield of AI that allows computers to learn from data, improve from experience, and make predictions or decisions without explicit programming.
2.1 Types of Machine Learning
Three basic types of Machine Learning are:
- Supervised Learning: The algorithm learns from labeled data. It’s widely used in applications where historical data predicts likely future events, such as credit score prediction.
- Unsupervised Learning: The algorithm learns from unlabeled data. It helps to find structure in data like clustering customers by purchasing behavior.
- Reinforcement Learning: Here, an agent learns to behave in an environment by performing certain actions gaining rewards. It’s used in various software and systems that learn to perform a task by taking certain decisions, like self-driving cars.
Section 3: Machine Learning Models
A machine learning model is a mathematical model with a number of parameters that get adjusted to improve the model’s performance during training.
3.1 Common Machine Learning Models
Some of the common Machine Learning models include:
- Linear Regression: Used for estimating real values based on continuous variables. It is used in understanding relationships between variables, for example in predicting house prices based on area, number of rooms etc.
- Logistic Regression: Used for binary classification problems. It could be used to predict whether an email is spam or not.
- Decision Tree: Useful in both classification and regression. Used in operations research, specifically in decision analysis to help identify a strategy most likely to reach a goal.
- Neural Networks: Used for complex tasks that resemble human brain operations. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), for instance, are utilized in image classification tasks.
- SVM (Support Vector Machines): Classification method used for both linear and non-linear data. It uses a technique called the kernel trick to transform your data and then based on these transformations, it finds an optimal boundary.